Learning difficulties are faced by many children, and these are generally built up over time.

When they are young, the start of learning difficulties could be a result that is in the middle or just under the middle of the class.

However, any difficulties a child has when they’re young will generally increase over time, becoming a bigger learning problem after Grade 3.

How Do Learning Problems Start?

If you have received a substandard school report about your child, then you may be wondering if your child is struggling to learn. Even if they are averaging the class, this doesn’t mean that their learning is operating to its potential.

Any measure of learning difficulties is going to depend on the statistical norm, but learning problems will vary from child to child. A very bright child who is only average in the school performance is underperforming, and over time could face more difficulties in learning.

Most parents have the ability to understand the potential that their child has, and of us often in a better position than teachers who are assessing children in relation to other children in the class.

From the perspective of a behavioural optometrist, learning requires a number of aspects involving visual system.

Firstly, the child must be able to concentrate properly. If they have trouble teaming their eyes together or sustaining their focus then concentration is going to be an issue.

Most often this particular aspect of vision is dealt with adequately using reading lenses or our enhanced reading lenses.

The second aspect of learning difficulties is far more difficult to deal with…

Visual Skills and Learning Difficulties

When we learn, all of us develop the skills necessary to do the tasks. These skills are not strictly I skills, but they do involve the I interacting with the brain.

Skills like eye movements, focus and eye teaming control, visualisation for spelling, left right awareness for reversals, coding, sequencing and hand eye coordination are some of the skills that are required to read, write and spell effectively.

Clearly using reading glasses is not going to help any of these skills. The only way we can enhance the skills is vision therapy, and my vision therapy specifically targeted to develop the visual skills that we need to learn.

Having developed my therapy over a number of years, and in several cultures, I have found it effective in developing the visual skills necessary for learning in almost every case.

As a behavioural optometrist, I use both lenses and vision therapy to improve children with learning difficulties, and we have outstanding success in this area.

Is there any magic? Not really, this is pure science applied not only in the form of glasses but also in the form of our vision therapy.

Using the therapy we can develop skills in much the same way that a child goes to football practice will become a better football. We can enhance skills because we practice them, and in my therapy is mostly the form of games stop so in the same way that should be a better guitarist if you go to guitar practice, or a better dancer if you go to dance lessons, so if you do vision therapy you will overcome learning difficulties.

If your child is struggling at school, then click this link because we have a free webinar that will enable you to examine vision therapy we offer a full you commit to it.

 

Watch the Free Webinar Here

The bottom line is, it is better to do something than to sit around and do nothing but watching your child get further and further behind in school.

Using the right techniques, the right lenses and the right vision therapy, your child is not need to struggle with learning difficulties but can begin to make steps to overcoming them are reaching their full potential student.

Best eye test for children on the Sunshine CoastIf you have a child you may be looking for the best eye test for children in your area.  Before we consider this, we need to recognize that children are not miniature adults, but rather need to be tested with the right instruments in a way that is designed exclusively for their eyes, while it centers on how they use their eyes in the classroom.

Most Sunshine Coast optometrists are great at testing adults and looking for ocular disease, but an eye test for kids is a completely different situation.  Kids don’t always process visual information the same as adults and their method of dealing with the pressure and stress on their vision is completely different, especially when we consider how much time they currently focus on near tasks like computers, tablets and smart phones!

The right eye test must include the standard tests like measuring their prescription (whether they are farsighted, nearsighted or have astigmatism) and their ocular health, but any eye test for children cannot stop there!

It is vitally important that children see a behavioural optometrist, and make sure that things like the focus, how the eyes team together, how they move across a page, convergence and 3-D perception are measured.  If the child has learning difficulties such as dyslexia, further tests can be done dealing with how the child takes in and processes the information they obtain via vision.  This includes visualization, direction skills, coding and sequencing.

This is why a behavioural optometrist like myself does more in an eye test for kids than any other optometrist, and why I use not only special lenses, frames and glasses but also offer exclusive, specialized exercises called vision therapy to help them, which centers on learning.

So on the Sunshine Coast or anywhere else, the best eye test for children may not necessarily be the nearest!  My patients travel from far and wide to have their vision exam, because they know that I will work hard to offer them ways to treat their presenting problems, while helping them save money on the frames and glasses we offer. This is especially true for learning disabilities where I use special techniques that centers a child’s specific vision needs when learning, and also in myopia or short sightedness treatment, where keeping children out of full time glasses is a priority.

So if you care for your child, don’t just get a regular vision exam or check up!  Visit a family behavioural optometrist and get the best eye test for children in your area.

Vision and Learning Problems

vision and learningVision and Learning are closely related, with vision being the dominant sense in the classroom and the main way in which new information comes to a child.  Yet it is one of the most frequently overlooked facets of a child’s learning experience!

Behavioural Optometrists believe that vision is an easy and obvious place to start when trying to find help for a child’s learning problems.  Most often, it has very little to do with whether a child can see the print.  The bigger issue is how they take in, process and understand the letters and words they are seeing.

There’s more to Vision and Learning

Most optometrists measure sight, and proclaim a child fit to learn if they can see the print and are not long or short sighted.  I hear phrases like, “My child has 20/20 vision,” which means they can see the words, but can they flow, can they understand and can they actually read?

There is far more to vision and learning than just being able to see.  I see perfectly well, yet I visit a Chinese city and despite a University education, despite a reasonable intelligence and good vision, I cannot understand the signs!  I can’t even try and pronounce them, yet I see them!  Clearly there is more to learning and reading than just seeing!

The fact is I cannot understand Chinese.  I don’t know the code, so the symbols are meaningless to me.  Children with learning disabilities can experience this with the words they try to understand, so a true test for vision and learning must go far beyond just a child’s seeing ability.

A True Test of Vision and Learning

When Behavioural Optometrists like me examine children, we want to go beyond the simple prescription and seeing ability of the child.  We will look at how the child’s visual system balances as they read, how they move their eyes across the page, how they coordinate their eyes as a team and how they understand and interpret the symbols on a page.

Our aim is to examine HOW the child learns, and how they use the visual skills that are essential for good learning.  Now most kids develop these during grade school, but children with learning problems often fail to develop or under develop these skills.  The best news of all is that using a combination of special lenses and targeted eye exercises (vision therapy) we can improve these basic building blocks of vision and learning.

The result is that we can have a significant impact on a child’s learning ability if we perform the right eye tests with your child, and use the right glasses or therapy to help them.

The Eye CU Difference

At Eye CU, we want to go further and help your children, especially if they are struggling with their learning.  We do this because we care, and because we want to improve your child’s ability to learn effectively.  We do it because we are passionate about it.

We do this because we believe there is a strong relationship between vision and learning, and our calling is to maximize the potential of all children, even if they are struggling with learning problems.

convergence insufficiencyConvergence insufficiency has long been linked to learning disabilities by Behavioural Optometrists like myself, but how does it relate to the child who is struggling to learn at school, and what is the mechanism that makes it so important?

What is Convergence Insufficiency and how is it Measured?

Convergence insufficiency is a condition where the convergence mechanism of vision, that is the ability to turn our eyes inwards in order to keep the near target single, is insufficient or underperforming.

This means that, for a distant object, the two eyes work well together, but it is a different story when it comes to looking at a near object such as a computer screen, a book, an ipad or a phone.  In this condition, the two eyes are unable to turn in sufficiently to do this near task, causing symptoms like eye strain, headaches and even double vision.  However, one of the most significant symptoms is poor concentration for reading tasks, and often reading and learning disabilities.

While many Optometrists do not even bother to test for this condition, Behavioural Optometrists spend quite a lot of time investigating this area and examining how it might be affecting learning and school performance.

 

What Happens During Reading?

 

As I have mentioned, convergence insufficiency means that our eyes do not turn in far enough, and have a great tendency to swing out at the earliest opportunity.  When a child is reading, they focus on a word, then they have to break their convergence to move to the next word.

What happens if, when they break and move, they eyes swing out?  Clearly the child has to  converge again onto the new word, and they have to do this for every word, reestablishing convergence time and time again.  This can slow a child’s reading to snail’s pace!

How do we Treat the Condition?

Convergence insufficiency can be treated in either of two ways… using reading glasses (also called support lenses) or using eye exercises.

Support lenses are the most popular way of treating this condition, because it is fast and usually very effective.  It’s simply a case of put the lenses on, and start reading.

Exercise on the other hand, take time and dedication to do, and most children find them boring.  That being said, I will frequently combine the two methods for maximum effectiveness, and we usually get a tremendous response from this type of treatment, especially when combined with other learning disabilities vision therapy techniques.

So if your child is struggling at school and if their learning and especially reading is poor, then a Behavioural Optometrist could hold the key.  Get your child assessed, and ask about the most effective ways to treat Convergence Insufficiency, because this is frequently an easy way to help a child with learning disabilities.

Vision Therapy ActivitiesVision therapy activities are used by Behavioural Optometrists around the world to help children develop their visual skills.  The aim is not so much to perform certain tasks in an office, but rather to help the child with learning disabilities or visual dysfunction and to aid them as they learn and develop through their schooling.

The big question is, “Do vision therapy activities actually work?”

What are the Vision Therapy Activities?

Concerned parents are always looking for ways to help their children, especially if their child is struggling at school.  Yet many so-called experts debate the effectiveness of vision therapy activities, without knowing what these activities actually entail!

As a behavioural optometrist for over 25 years, I have successfully used vision therapy activities to modify both the measurable visual performance of children and also their performance in the classroom.  However, I recognize that some activities suggested by optometrists hold little value for improving the school performance of children, even if they change our measurements.

Claiming that therapy activities do not work is like claiming piano lessons don’t work!   We should not write off the entire profession because somebody did vision therapy activities and did not get a result.  I failed my piano lessons, yet clearly they seem to have worked for Billy Joel!

Why Most Vision Therapy Activities Cannot Fail!

There are definitely types of activities that cannot fail, and these are similar to guitar or piano lessons in that they teach children the skills they need to perform well in school.  What skills am I talking about?

I use vision therapy to train skills like eye movements and tracking, eye coordination and focus, visual memory for spelling, directionality for letter reversals and well known skills like sequencing, coding, etc.  These are used every day by people as they learn, and if they are underdeveloped for any reason, they the child is likely to suffer a learning disability.

These skills are developed naturally by school and learning activities over time, but what happens if they do not develop until Grade 8?  You have a child who might be very bright verbally but cannot read, write or spell very well.  They most often don’t have dyslexia or brain damage, they most often have simply failed to develop the skills they need to do the job properly.

Activities which concentrate on the visual skills every person in every culture uses to learn and read will definitely help a child with learning disabilities.  In fact, they simply cannot miss!

Vision therapies which focus on developing these essential visual skills almost always see improvement in a child’s learning ability.  In the same way that piano lessons will improve both a novice player and an expert, getting these skills right can have a major effect on a child’s ability to learn.

The great thing is that developing these skills is fun and enjoyable for the child!  I have produced activities which kids love doing, find challenging yet not overwhelming and have a fantastic success rate for helping children with learning difficulties.  They’re not weird, not boring and take around 6 months to help a child reach their full potential.  They don’t teach a child reading, but they provide the skills that child needs to be taught reading quickly and effectively.

Those which focus on developing the needed skills can be a powerful tool for helping your child learn more effectively.

 

Can Home Vision Therapy Help Learning Disabilities?

 

Vision therapy is becoming a popular way of helping children with learning disabilities.  The main problem with them is that they are prescribed by behavioural optometrists and are often very expensive (sometimes thousands of dollars).  They also often involve multiple and frequent trips to the optometrist to use sophisticated equipment.  Some simple activities are done at home, but questions are often raised about the effectiveness of home based therapies.

 

The Advantage of Home Therapies

 

I believe that home based therapy has several clear advantages over the in-office style.  Firstly, they can be done at any hour of the day or night, in any place in the world and do not require trips to the optometrist.  Secondly, they can be a lot less expensive because the valuable time of the optometrist or their assistants is not being used on a weekly basis.

But are they as effective as in office activities?

In some areas clearly they cannot be as effective because the advanced equipment is not available in your home. This is especially true for complicated eye conditions such as turned eyes or lazy eyes.  That being said, a simpler task performed every day is frequently more successful than a visit once or twice a week to an expert’s office.

The fact is that some therapies, notably those which help learning disabilities, can be easily and successfully done at home by parents, while others require greater expertise or equipment and should only be attempted by a behavioural optometrist.

So What Does Work at Home?

Some activities are extremely effective as home therapies, especially when it comes to learning disabilities and problems.  Tracking for example, which helps a child to move across a page correctly and not misread words or skip lines, is easily trained using home based techniques.  Visualization for spelling is another, as is directional training (to stop letter reversals), coding, sequencing and even focus and eye coordination.

As a behavioural optometrist myself, I have been effectively using these home based vision therapy activities to help children with learning disabilities for years and with the rise of the internet their effectiveness has become greater.

 

In my program I have utilized automatic emails to keep parents on track and gently “nag” them into keeping up their schedule of therapies.  This has been very successful and can be reset at any time, helping to keep parents on track and children doing enough vision therapy activities to have a positive effect on their school performance.  Again, doing a lesser activity every day is often more effective that a complex one weekly.

When it comes to children with learning disabilities, a home based series of vision therapy activities is one of the most effective ways of helping because parents can do the therapies daily and at any time that works for them and their family.  Using the right activities more often can train the skills that a child needs to perform better in school, and I prove this with my patients on a daily basis!

When it comes to developing visual skills for learning, home based vision therapy activities are among the most effective tools I know for helping children with learning disabilities.

learning disabilities resourcesIf you are the parent of a child who is struggling with reading difficulties, you are probably searching for learning disabilities resources all the time, often with limited results.  Why is it that many learning disabilities resources seem to offer little other than the long, tortuous and painstaking frustration of making a child read over and over again.   If reading is the main source of difficulty for a child, one has to ask the question, “Are most learning disabilities resources missing the point?”

Learning Disabilities Resources should be More than Repetition

If you have a child struggling with reading, writing and spelling, simply making them do more of the very task they hate and associate with failure is frustrating and discouraging for both them and you!

It has been said that the definition of insanity is doing the same task over and over expecting a different result, and for many this sums up most learning disabilities resources!  Surely there is a better way to approach things which give some hope and encouragement to our children!

Learning Resources for Disabilities Can Build a Platform for Success

Effective resources must provide a platform for the success of a child struggling to read.  They need to build essential skills which enable reading success, and they need to be interesting, fun and provide a sense of achievement.  They cannot allow the child to fail and struggle, and they need to keep the child motivated to continue.

In short, the best way to provide learning resources that actually work is in the form and games and fun tasks, which somehow build up the skills that children need to succeed.  That is where vision therapy can provide a fantastic alternative to the traditional learning disabilities resources which involve repeated, painful and discouraging tasks.

Learning Disabilities Resources and Vision Therapy

For over 20 years I have been providing learning help using vision therapy, which is a series of targeted games and fun activities which most children love to do and which help to build essential visual skills.  These exercises and therapies train a child’s vision skills to help them learn more effectively and quickly.  These skills, such as focus, eye coordination, sequencing, coding, visual memory, hand eye coordination and eye tracking lay a groundwork to allow reading success, and they do this in a matter of months and with a lot of fun and enjoyment.

This means that we can provide the skills necessary for a child to read effectively, and do so in a fun and enjoyable environment rather than in a screaming match or tearful environment.  Vision therapy can be done at home, wherever you are in the world, and in a few months you could be seeing an amazing transformation in your child’s ability to read, write and spell.

If you then apply the more typical learning resources which involve repetitive reading, you will now find that your child has the basic skills necessary, and will start to improve rapidly rather than slowly.

This may sound crazy, but it is true in most areas of life.  We take our kids to football training to learn football skills, to tennis lessons top learn those skills and guitar lessons to learn guitar playing skills… so why not get the right training for your child’s reading skills.  Vision therapy can produce the right results if you take the time to do it correctly.  It is very often the missing link in learning disabilities resources.

reading help for childrenIf you are searching for a way to offer reading help for children it is often hard to have an idea where to start. As you would probably acknowledge, merely going over and over the same material endlessly does not actually provide reading help for kids, but rather it compounds the misery of their failure at reading, frustrating both children and parents. Surely there has to be a good way to provide reading help the children that sees proper results?

Reading Help for Children Must Begin at the Essentials

The reason so much of the reading assistance for children offered today is less than efficient is because it begins at a level that is too advanced. If you have a child with a learning impairment, then you will certainly be extremely keen to get that kid reading well as quickly as possible. For this reason, moms and dads plunge into reading programs which entirely overlook the basic of providing reading assistance for kids. You can not develop a strong house without a strong foundation, and you can not provide far-reaching reading help for children without resolving the fundamental concerns and skills that have fallen short in the reading process.

Reading Help for Kids Has to Build on the Fundamentals

This does not imply that we entirely forget words and sentences, because these are the foundation of reading. Nevertheless, if we lay a firm foundation in the basic skills that child needs to learn to read, the actual process of deciphering words and sentences and reading effectively will become easier in the long term.

If we want to offer effective reading assistance for children, we should start with the fundamentals then construct on the basics as the kid enhances their capability to read. Nevertheless, in our eagerness to provide reading help for kids, we usually jump to the 2nd phase and overlook the basics however in truth lay the groundwork for future reading success.

Reading Assistance for Kids Ought to Start With Putting together the Tools They Need to Read

So where do we start in providing reading assistance for kids that really works? As a behavioral optometrist for over 2 Decades, I believe that vision is an essential skill that needs to be established successfully in order for kids to read well. That’s why I have put together a program which trains the fundamental visual abilities needed in reading, and is an efficient way of developing these skills to offer lasting reading assistance for your child that will yield academic success for their whole life.

Visual abilities such as focusing, eye coordination, visualization, eye movements, sequencing, coding and a host of other skills can be developed rapidly and efficiently to provide reading help for kids with learning problems. I have shown in my own practice time and again that taking a short amount of time out from reading tutoring, and devoting it to the development of these important visual skills, can yield lasting success in reading, writing and spelling.

The success of the reading help for children provided by teachers and parents is greatly increased if the basic visual skills are trained effectively.  Once again, the laying of a proper foundation provides support for the structure that is built upon it, and the right vision therapy can provide that foundation to ensure long-term reading success.

 

So I would urge those of you who work with children with learning disabilities to not overlook the training of the basic visual skills, because these can then be an essential part of the academic success of the child you were caring for.

 

Combining the right type of vision therapy with traditional reading help for children could be the formula for success in learning disabilities that you are looking for.

learning disabilityIf you are struggling to help a child with a learning disability then the question of eye tracking when reading may have come up more than once.  Eye tracking refers to the ability of the reader to control their eye movements so that their eyes are pointing to the right place all the time when they are reading, and is frequently reported that a child with a learning disability also shows produced eye tracking ability.

What Causes a Learning Disability?

There are many possible causes of a learning disability, and poor eye tracking is known to be a possible contributory to it.  This is not to say that poor eye tracking or the inability to control eye movements effectively is the only cause of a learning disability, but it certainly can be partially responsible for a number of learning disability symptoms a child may display.

A learning disability has many causes, from brain difficulties and hearing problems right through to the area in which I work as a Behavioral Optometrist, the visual system!  Given that vision is the dominant sense used in the classroom, it follows that dysfunction in the visual system will often be a central cause in a child’s learning disability.

How Does Eye Tracking Contribute to a Learning Disability?

The control of your eye movements is an essential part of reading, so if a child cannot control their eye movements effectively, this can form the basis of a learning disability.

If your child is misreading small words, skipping lines and mixing up words, even though they know the words on the page, then they may have a learning disability that is centered around eye tracking.  If you find that they lose their place easily, and that using a finger under the words significantly helps their reading flow, then eye tracking is almost certain to be a culprit.

Reading with a ruler under the line or a finger under the words can help to relieve some of the symptoms a child with a learning disability may feel, but it does not solve the problem: it only provides a temporary solution to the learning disability!

How Can You Improve a Learning Disability Using Eye Tracking?

The great news is that, if your child has a learning disability in which eye tracking and movement plays a part, the situation is treatable!  I have been successfully reducing this type of learning disability for many years, using a combination of support lenses and, above all, vision therapy training for eye tracking.

Vision therapy consists of a series of exercises that you can do at home, wherever you are in the world, and see positive results in your child.  They are simple yet highly effective in smoothing out eye movements and allowing your child to track correctly when they read, thereby increasing reading speed and accuracy and even enjoyment!  These exercises have been clinically tested and proven to reduce misreading, line skipping and their losing place during reading , and they are a cheap yet potent way of seeing real improvement in your child’s reading ability, flow and concentration.

The right vision therapy targeting the visual skills necessary for reading could be the break through that you are looking for to help your child overcome a learning disability.

behavioural optometryYou may be wondering what behavioural optometry is and what it can offer you as a parent for your child.

Behavioural Optometry is a mode of practice which seeks to go beyond the simple ability to see, helping patients to understand and interpret information in a holistic way.   It is sometimes called developmental optometry because of its association with children and developing vision.

Behavioural Optometry was once viewed by traditional Optometry as being somewhere between reading tea leaves and reading palms!  When I started behavioural practice 25 years ago, I felt like my fellow Optometrists saw me as weird and strange, but much has changed since then.

The Rise of Behavioural Optometry

Now traditional Optometrists from across my area send me the children they do not understand or feel they cannot help!  In my area of the Sunshine Coast Behavioural Optometry is being embraced by traditional practitioners and recognized for what it is, a specific specialty or discipline within our profession which can provide real answers to children struggling at school.

Scientific studies are now finding results which support this powerful mode of Optometry, further enhancing its credibility within the profession.

Yet it does not stop there!  As a Behavioural Optometrist, I can now supply answers for many patients and many conditions, notably the efforts we are pursuing to stop the progression of short sightedness or myopia.  This means that we don’t have to sit by and watch our children’s prescriptions get stronger and their lenses thicker through the years!  Sometimes we can even reverse it, and the principles we build such treatment on are based upon longstanding Behavioural Optometry premises.

Another area which works well is in the treatment of turned eyes and lazy eyes, where traditional Optometry holds very few answers and a lot of frustration.  Helping the eyes to begin functioning together effectively is part of what we can now do as Behavioural Practitioners.

However, the real power and attraction of this discipline is in the area of learning disabilities, where we can not only increase concentration and

So now is the time when this branch of the profession is coming into it’s own!

There is a valid and powerful tool that can be used to help children with learning disabilities, turned eyes, lazy eyes and increasing short sightedness, and this tool is called Behavioural Optometry!

home vision therapyThe effectiveness of home vision therapy for the treatment of learning disabilities is often debated by professionals, but as someone who has worked with learning disabilities for over 20 years, I am absolutely convinced of the power that home vision therapy offers to help the frustrated and disillusioned parents of a struggling child!

What Is Home Vision Therapy?

Home Vision Therapy is the term given to a series of vision training exercises that are able to be adequately performed at home by parents.  With careful and complete instruction, many vision exercises can be performed by parents at home, with the big advantage that they can be done every day rather than making a special trip into the behavioral optometrist, orthoptist, occupational therapist or the like.

The power of doing a task every day rather than once or twice a week has been well documented, with the accumulative effect of daily exercises being the major reason for home vision therapy.  The big question is, can the parents do what the professional can?  If the exercises are well thought out and explained, in many cases the answer is, “Yes”!

How Can Our Vision Therapy Help is more effective in certain areas of vision training than in others.  Some types of training require a higher level of skill, observation or equipment that the parent simply does not have, and professionals have paid thousands of dollars to obtain the equipment and training necessary to perform these tasks.  Other tasks, however, are a lot easier to incorporate into a home vision therapy program.

The great news is that the types of therapies which are easily performed at home and require equipment most parents have are very often the most effective techniques for improving learning in children struggling to read, write and spell!  It is not easy to incorporate therapies for focus, eye coordination or binocular problems into a home vision therapy program, but visual skills necessary for learning, such as visual memory, sequencing, coding, hand-eye coordination and left-right awareness can easily be performed at home by a parent who has been given concise and detailed instructions.

What is the Most Effective Home Vision Therapy?

For home vision therapy to be effective it must have certain characteristics.  It must be simple and easily taught to parents.  It must have simple equipment that can be sourced in or around the home at very little expense.  It needs to be clearly and concisely detailed to the parents so that they understand exactly what they need to do, and also what they need to observe in their child as they do the exercises.

Above all, for Home Vision Therapy to be successful it has to be fun for both the children and the adults!  I cannot overemphasize this point because unless there is enjoyment the chances of the program being pursued to the end are very small.  In fact, I have had many parents tell me that the activities in my home vision therapy are not only fun, helpful and extremely powerful, but they have also resulted in quality time being spent by parents with the children!  If you can invest time into something that makes sense and is fun, the compliance from children skyrockets and the effectiveness of the program increases accordingly!

So, if carefully arranged and instructed by a skilled professional, Home Vision Therapy can be extremely helpful in the treatment of learning disabilities and offers the advantage of being able to be used every day for maximum effectiveness.